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I have a new Debain 7 server (VM) and would like to use a raw iSCSI Lun on it presented from my QNAP (and put ZFS on it at the end but thats already covered elsewhere here). Prerequisites: Read and understand some iSCSI best practices (like those ones http://storageblog.typepad.com/storage_blog/2009/03/simple-iscsi-best-practices-top-3.html (I have simply ignored them all here so don’t blame me when you put my construct into production) I have a QNAP NAS under 192.168.1.9 presenting a iSCSI Target and Lun (iSCSI Target) I have a standard Debian 7 Server (VM) on the same network. (iSCSI initiator) On the Debian 7 VM Install the open-iscsi package apt-get install open-iscsi There are 2 things to edit in the /etc/iscsi/iscsid.conf 1) I want my iSCSI to start automatically when I boot my server. Search for node.startup = manual #and change to node.startup = automatic 2) If you use CHAP authentication on the iSCSI device you will need […]

It is widely know that ZFS can compress and deduplicate. The deduplication works across the pool level and removes duplicate data blocks as they are written to disk. This results into having only unique blocks stored on the disk while the duplicate blocks are shared among the files. There is a good read about how dedupe works and some tweaking things like changing the checksum hashing function. https://blogs.oracle.com/bonwick/entry/zfs_dedup Note: Compression works fine under zfsonlinux but the current version is not yet supporting deduplication (16.09.2014). ZFS on FreeBSD (for example FreeNAS) and Solaris (and Opensolaris) have a higher pool version and support deduplication. Deduplication has been introduced with pool version 31. Zpool versions and features (blogs.oracle.com) List of operating systems supporting ZFS (wikipedia) Now, how to determine if you would actually benefit from deduplicated and compressed datasets? I run the following under FreeNAS with a testsetup filled with real data. (self recorded camera .mov, ISOs, virtual […]

Not the very latest release but certainly still valid for many things. Rolf Kersten from Sun wrote the “The 20% of Solaris knowledge that solves 80% of your needs” guide. Here are 2 links where to get it. 1) Version 1.17e, 24. Jul. 2003 http://www.cse.sc.edu/~okeefe/systemadmin/solaris80.20.pdf Alternative Solaris OE Guide for New System Administrators – The 20% of Solaris knowledge that solves 80% of your needs by Rolf Kersten   Related posts: Solaris: Administrator’s Quick Reference Solaris: SDS: Both Metadevices of a mirror have "State: Needs maintenance" Solaris 11 Cheat Sheet and other Oracle Documentation Sun / Solaris / ALOM : Solaris ILOM / ALOM Cheat Sheet Solaris: Netbackup: bpcd issues Solaris: ZFS encryption with deduplication and compression

In the wake of the current Truecrypt FUD. It seems not too widely known that you can encrypt your data with zfs for quite some while. And it also works along with compression and deduplication. However this applies only to ZFS zpool version 30 onwards (introduced with Solaris 11) while zfs on Linux currently still runs on zpool version 28. So its not running there. To read a bit in detail on how it works you will find here a few interesting posts. How to Manage ZFS Data Encryption Introducing ZFS Crypto in Oracle Solaris 11 Express Having my secured cake and Cloning it too (aka Encryption + Dedup with ZFS) The encryption options are: aes-128-ccm (default) aes-192-ccm aes-256-ccm aes-128-gcm aes-192-gcm aes-256-gcm Only CCM supports encryption along with compression and deduplication so I ditch the GCM and go for (putting my weak half torn tinfoil hat on) aes-256-ccm. I’ll create a new Filesystem […]

In relation to the outdated post http://www.solaris-cookbook.eu/linux/debian-kanotix-proxmox-install-zfs-native/ Things have become much easier now How to install ZFS native on Debian 7 or Proxmox 3.x 1) become root sudo su – 2) Install ZFS wget http://archive.zfsonlinux.org/debian/pool/main/z/zfsonlinux/zfsonlinux_3%7Ewheezy_all.deb dpkg -i zfsonlinux_3~wheezy_all.deb apt-get update apt-get install debian-zfs kernel upgrade After updating the Kernel you most likely have to do the following steps: make sure you have the headers installed (proxmox example) aptitude install pve-headers-$(uname -r) (it will pick the current running kernel version. If you just updated the kernel you better reboot first.) ln -s /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/build /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/source aptitude reinstall spl-dkms zfs-dkms That should cover you on a kernel update Related posts: Debian / Kanotix / Proxmox: Install ZFS Native Linux: Install Proxmox Virtual Environment on Debian 6.0 Squeeze Distro (Kanopix) ZFS: Fun with ZFS – is compression and deduplication useful for my data and how much memory do I need for zfs dedup? […]

Talking about ZFS and ARC CACHE Generally ZFS is designed for servers and as such its default settings are to allocate: – 75% of memory on systems with less than 4 GB of memory – physmem minus 1 GB on systems with greater than 4 GB of memory (Info is from Oracle but I expect the same values for ZFS native on Linux) That might be too much if you intent to run anything else like virtualisation or applications on the server and while ZFS returns cached memory when a memory intensive application asks for it, there might be a delay to do so causing some waits. We want to limit the memory ZFS can allocate to give some air to breath for the applications. However this won’t make any significant performance improvement to the filesystem itself. It’s just to free memory for other application which might have started to […]

Here we go again. After installing ZFS on a Debian based Proxmox Node I now need some bang on a CentOS Server. To remind you all: ZFS on Linux is considerably stable and matured, but you put it in place on your own risk. ZFS Native comes from http://zfsonlinux.org/ I use a Centos 6.3 minimal installation and I have a 2GB disk configured to it for demo. fdisk -l Disk /dev/sdb: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes Updated (26.04.2013) And a Russian fellow describes his way to install it which I used and improved. http://habrahabr.ru/post/152853/ He build his own repo under http://yum.aclub.net/pub/linux/centos/6/umask-zfsonlinux/x86_64/ which is maintained as per 05.03.2013 So we start with: cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ wget http://yum.aclub.net/pub/linux/centos/6/umask-zfsonlinux/umask-zfsonlinux.repo rpm –import http://yum.aclub.net/pub/linux/centos/5/umask/RPM-GPG-KEY-umask There is an original repo from zfs on Linux now which we are going to use since it has the latest version 0.6.1 of ZFS http://zfsonlinux.org/epel.html yum localinstall –nogpgcheck If you don’t have […]

I do it on a regular base but everytime need to go back to my cheat sheet to jumpstart my memory. Whenever I need to reach one system from another without asking me for a password: First login on Server Alpha as the user desired to have the password free ssh and generate a pair of authentication keys. I would advise not to enter a passphrase but I leave that to you: user@Alpha:~> ssh-keygen -t rsa Generating public/private rsa key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa): Created directory ‘/home/user/.ssh’. Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_rsa. Your public key has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_rsa.pub. The key fingerprint is: xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:… user@Alpha The key’s randomart image is: …..xxxxxx.x.x.x..x.xx.whatever We need to create on the Server Bravo a user’s home subdirectory .ssh. (The directory may already exist, which is […]

Here you get a running NTP client in 1 minute: RedHat/CentOS/Scientific Linux Install NTP in Debian/Ubuntu Solaris (9,10,11) RedHat/CentOS/Scientific Linux sudo yum install ntp chkconfig ntpd on Make saure you have a few server in the ntp.conf # cat /etc/ntp.conf |grep server # Use public servers from the pool.ntp.org project. server 0.centos.pool.ntp.org server 1.centos.pool.ntp.org server 2.centos.pool.ntp.org #or for Redhat server 0.rhel.pool.ntp.org server 1.rhel.pool.ntp.org server 2.rhel.pool.ntp.org check for the servers by using # ntpq -pn remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter ================================================================== 54.247.170.181 194.109.22.18 3 u 8 64 3 36.923 12.195 11.683 94.247.49.238 .GPS. 1 u 6 64 3 27.578 2.822 3.068 46.51.185.173 193.190.230.65 2 u 8 64 3 17.190 3.408 2.773 Set the server and time by selecting one serer to contact: service ntpd stop ntpdate -b 0.rhel.pool.ntp.org service ntpd start check date: date   Install NTP in Debian/Ubuntu #apt-get install ntp ntpdate ntp-server This will […]

Based on this very useful web page http://web.archive.org/web/20121228004700/http://users.wowway.com:80/~captainkirk/computers/SolarisILOMALOMCheatSheet.htm which is unfortunately offline now… so here for reference. Solaris ILOM / ALOM Cheat Sheet ILOM ALOM CMT Command Comparison ALOM: ILOM: setdate set /SP/clock datetime=value value format: MMDDhhmmYYYY setdefaults set /SP reset_to_defaults=all -> reset /SP This resets the SP setkeyswitch set /SYS keyswitch_state=value value= normal, diag, stby, locked setsc set target property=value setupsc No equivalent in ILOM setlocator set /SYS/LOCATE value= Fast_Blink or off setfru -c data set /SYS customer_frudata=data showplatform show /HOST showplatform show /SYS ( to view Serial Number ) showfru No equivalent in ILOM showusers -g # show /SP/users showhost show /HOST showkeyswitch show /SYS keyswitch_state showsc param show target property VIEW DIAG LEVEL show /HOST/diag setsc diag_level set /HOST/diag trigger=All-resets none, normal, User-reset, Power-on-reset, Error-reset showdate show /SP/clock datetime showlogs show /SP/logs/event/list showlogs show /SP/faultmgmt set /SP/logs/event clear=true showenvironment show -o table -level all /SYS shownetwork show […]

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